TOEFL ibt 対策!無料のリーディング対策問題11(解説付き)

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Title: Climate Change and Its Effects on Ocean Circulation

Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing the world today, and its impact on the oceans is a significant concern. Ocean circulation plays a critical role in regulating the Earth’s climate and is responsible for transporting heat from the equator to the poles. However, the warming of the oceans due to climate change is causing changes in ocean circulation that could have far-reaching effects on the planet’s climate.

The primary cause of ocean warming is the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which trap heat and warm the planet. As the oceans absorb more heat, the water becomes less dense, and this can affect the circulation patterns. One example of this is the weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which is responsible for carrying warm water from the tropics to the North Atlantic. If the AMOC weakens significantly, it could lead to a cooling of the North Atlantic, which could have major impacts on the climate in Europe.

In addition to affecting ocean circulation, climate change is also causing the oceans to become more acidic. This is due to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid. The increased acidity of the oceans is having a profound effect on marine life, particularly on organisms that rely on calcium carbonate to build their shells and skeletons.

Another effect of climate change on the oceans is sea level rise. As the planet warms, glaciers and ice sheets are melting, causing the sea level to rise. This could have severe consequences for low-lying areas, such as island nations and coastal cities, which could be at risk of flooding and storm surges.

Finally, climate change is also affecting the distribution and abundance of marine species. As the oceans warm, many species are moving to cooler waters, while others are experiencing declines in population due to changes in their habitat. This could have significant impacts on marine ecosystems, including the loss of important commercial fish species.

In conclusion, climate change is having a profound effect on the oceans and their circulation patterns, which could have far-reaching impacts on the planet’s climate. It is essential that we take action to mitigate the effects of climate change and protect the health of our oceans and the life they support.


  1. What is the primary cause of ocean warming?
    a) Increase in marine pollution
    b) Increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
    c) Increase in solar radiation
    d) Increase in ocean salinity
  2. What is the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) responsible for?
    a) Carrying warm water from the North Atlantic to the tropics
    b) Carrying warm water from the tropics to the North Atlantic
    c) Cooling the North Atlantic
    d) Warming the North Atlantic
  3. What could be the consequence of a significant weakening of the AMOC?
    a) Cooling of the North Atlantic
    b) Warming of the North Atlantic
    c) Increase in ocean acidity
    d) Increase in ocean salinity
  4. What is the primary cause of the oceans becoming more acidic?
    a) Absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
    b) Increase in marine pollution
    c) Increase in ocean salinity
    d) Increase in solar radiation
  5. Which marine organisms are particularly affected by the increased acidity of the oceans?
    a) Organisms that rely on oxygen to survive
    b) Organisms that rely on sunlight to survive
    c) Organisms that rely on calcium carbonate to build their shells and skeletons
    d) Organisms that rely on nitrogen to survive
  6. What effect is climate change having on sea levels?
    a) Causing them to rise due to melting ice sheets and glaciers
    b) Causing them to fall due to increased ocean salinity
    c) Causing them to remain stable
    d) Causing them to fluctuate due to changes in ocean currents
  7. What areas are at risk of flooding and storm surges due to sea level rise?
    a) High-altitude regions
    b) Low-lying areas, such as island nations and coastal cities
    c) Inland cities
    d) Mountainous regions
  8. Why are marine species moving to cooler waters?
    a) Due to increased pollution in warmer waters
    b) Due to changes in their habitat caused by climate change
    c) Due to overfishing in warmer waters
    d) Due to a decrease in prey populations in warmer waters
  9. What could be the consequence of changes in the distribution and abundance of marine species?
    a) A loss of important commercial fish species
    b) An increase in marine pollution
    c) An increase in ocean acidity
    d) An increase in ocean salinity
  10. What action is essential to mitigate the effects of climate change on the oceans?
    a) Reducing carbon dioxide emissions
    b) Increasing ocean salinity
    c) Increasing solar radiation
    d) Increasing marine pollution


  1. 海洋温暖化の主な原因は何ですか?
    答え:b. 大気中の温室効果ガスの増加
  1. 大西洋メリディオナル循環(AMOC)は何を担当していますか?
    答え:b. 熱帯から北大西洋までの温かい水を運ぶこと
  1. AMOCが大幅に弱体化することの結果は何ですか?
    答え:a. 北大西洋の冷却
  2. 海洋がより酸性化する主な原因は何ですか?
    答え:a. 大気中の二酸化炭素の吸収
  3. 被酸性化した海洋に特に影響を受けるのはどのような海洋生物ですか?
    答え:c. 貝殻や骨格を作るために炭酸カルシウムを必要とする生物
  4. 気候変動は海面にどのような影響を与えていますか?
    答え:a. 氷河や氷床の融解により上昇させている。
  5. 海面上昇によって洪水や高潮の危険があるのはどのような地域ですか?
    答え:b. 島国や沿岸都市などの低地の地域
  6. なぜ海洋生物は涼しい水域に移動しているのですか?
    答え:b. 気候変動によって生息環境が変化したため
  7. 海洋生物の分布と個体数の変化がもたらす影響は何ですか?
    答え:a. 重要な商業漁業種の喪失
  8. 海洋への気候変動の影響を和らげるために必要な行動は何ですか?
    答え:a. 二酸化炭素の排出削減