TOEFL ibt 対策!無料のリーディング対策問題9(解説付き)

TOEFL ibt リーディング問題集

TOEFL ibt リーディングテストのスコアを改善するには…



Title: Plate Tectonics and the Earth’s Interior

The Earth’s interior is a complex and dynamic system that has been the subject of intense study for many years. Plate tectonics is the dominant theory used to explain the movement and behavior of the Earth’s crust, and it has revolutionized the field of geology. This theory describes the Earth’s crust as being composed of a series of large, rigid plates that are in constant motion.

The movement of these plates is driven by the convection currents that occur in the Earth’s mantle, which is the layer of the Earth that lies between the crust and the core. These convection currents are caused by the uneven distribution of heat in the Earth’s interior, with hotter material rising and cooler material sinking. As the hotter material rises, it pushes the plates apart, causing them to move away from each other.

When plates move away from each other, they create divergent boundaries, where new crust is formed as magma rises to the surface and solidifies. One example of this is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is a long chain of underwater mountains that runs through the Atlantic Ocean. As the plates move apart at this boundary, magma rises to fill the gap and creates new crust.

On the other hand, when plates collide with each other, they create convergent boundaries, where one plate is forced beneath the other in a process known as subduction. This process can result in the formation of mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas, which were formed as the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate. Subduction zones can also be the site of intense seismic activity, as the plates interact and release energy in the form of earthquakes.

Finally, plates can also slide past each other along transform boundaries. One well-known example of this is the San Andreas Fault in California, which marks the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. Transform boundaries can also be the site of earthquakes, as the plates grind past each other and release energy.

In conclusion, plate tectonics is a powerful theory that explains many of the features and processes of the Earth’s crust. By understanding how plates move and interact, geologists can gain insight into the formation of mountain ranges, the location of earthquakes and volcanic activity, and even the evolution of the continents themselves.


  1. What is the dominant theory used to explain the movement and behavior of the Earth’s crust?
    A) Plate tectonics
    B) Seismic activity
    C) Convection currents
    D) Mountain formation
  2. What layer of the Earth lies between the crust and the core?
    A) The mantle
    B) The lithosphere
    C) The asthenosphere
    D) The mesosphere
  3. What drives the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates?
    A) Convection currents in the mantle
    B) The Earth’s rotation
    C) Gravity
    D) The Sun’s radiation
  4. What happens at divergent boundaries?
    A) New crust is formed as magma rises to the surface
    B) One plate is forced beneath the other in a process known as subduction
    C) Plates slide past each other along a fault line
    D) Earthquakes occur due to intense pressure and friction
  5. What is a well-known example of a transform boundary?
    A) The Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    B) The San Andreas Fault
    C) The Himalayan Mountains
    D) The Andes Mountains
  6. What is subduction?
    A) The process by which plates move away from each other
    B) The process by which plates slide past each other
    C) The process by which one plate is forced beneath another
    D) The process by which new crust is formed at divergent boundaries
  7. What is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?
    A) A long chain of underwater mountains in the Atlantic Ocean
    B) The site of intense seismic activity in California
    C) A mountain range formed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates
    D) The boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates
  8. What is the relationship between subduction zones and earthquakes?
    A) Subduction zones are the site of intense seismic activity
    B) Subduction zones prevent earthquakes from occurring
    C) Earthquakes are not related to plate tectonics
    D) Subduction zones can only cause earthquakes in certain areas
  9. What do convection currents in the mantle do?
    A) Drive the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates
    B) Cause the Earth’s rotation
    C) Create new crust at divergent boundaries
    D) Form mountain ranges at convergent boundaries
  10. What can geologists gain insight into by studying plate tectonics?
    A) The formation of mountain ranges
    B) The location of earthquakes and volcanic activity
    C) The evolution of the continents
    D) All of the above


  1. 地殻の移動と振る舞いを説明するために支配的な理論は何か。
  1. 地殻と核の間にある地球のどの層が存在するか。
  1. 地殻プレートの移動を促進するものは何か。
  1. 分岐境界で何が起こるのか。
  1. トランスフォーム境界のよく知られた例は何ですか?
    正解:B) サンアンドレアス断層
  2. サブダクションとは何ですか?
    正解:C) 1つのプレートが他のプレートの下に押し込まれるプロセス
  3. ミッド・アトランティック・リッジとは何ですか?
    正解:A) 大西洋の海底にある長い山脈の連鎖
  4. サブダクション帯と地震の関係は何ですか?
    正解:A) サブダクション帯は強い地震活動が起こる場所です。
  5. マントル中の対流の流れは何をするのか?
    正解:A) 地殻プレートの移動を駆動する
  6. プレートテクトニクスを研究することで、地質学者は何に洞察を得ることができるか?
    正解:D) 全ての答え(山脈の形成、地震と火山活動の場所、大陸の進化)