TOEFL ibt 対策!無料のリーディング対策問題38(解説付き)

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Title: The Role of Government in Economic Development

Economic development refers to the sustained growth and improvement of a country’s economy. It involves various factors such as increased productivity, technological advancements, and improved living standards for the population. One crucial aspect that influences economic development is the role of government. Governments play a significant role in shaping and guiding economic policies, implementing regulations, and providing public goods and services. This passage will explore the different ways in which government intervention can impact economic development.

One of the primary roles of government in economic development is the formulation and implementation of macroeconomic policies. These policies aim to achieve stable economic growth, control inflation, manage fiscal deficits, and promote employment opportunities. Governments use tools such as fiscal policy (managing government spending and taxation) and monetary policy (controlling money supply and interest rates) to influence economic activity and create an environment conducive to development.

Government intervention is also essential in providing a legal and regulatory framework for businesses. Regulations and laws ensure fair competition, protect consumers’ rights, and maintain the overall stability of the market. Governments establish rules that prevent monopolistic practices, enforce property rights, and encourage innovation. By creating a transparent and predictable business environment, governments attract domestic and foreign investments, which contribute to economic growth and development.

Infrastructure development is another area where government plays a crucial role. Infrastructure, including transportation networks, energy systems, and communication facilities, provides the foundation for economic activities. Governments invest in infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, airports, and ports to enhance connectivity, facilitate trade, and support industrial development. The availability of reliable infrastructure contributes to increased productivity and competitiveness, promoting economic growth.

Government spending on education and healthcare is vital for human capital development, which is a significant driver of economic growth. By investing in education, governments ensure a skilled and knowledgeable workforce that can contribute to innovation and productivity improvements. Similarly, access to quality healthcare services improves the overall health and well-being of the population, leading to a more productive labor force.

In addition to domestic policies, governments also engage in international trade and cooperation to foster economic development. Governments negotiate trade agreements, participate in regional economic blocs, and promote exports to access foreign markets. These initiatives enable countries to tap into global opportunities, expand their export base, attract foreign direct investment, and benefit from technological spillovers and knowledge transfer.

While government intervention can be beneficial for economic development, it is essential to strike a balance. Excessive regulations, corruption, or mismanagement can hinder economic growth and discourage private sector investment. Governments need to maintain transparency, accountability, and efficient governance structures to create an enabling environment for businesses to thrive.

In conclusion, the role of government in economic development is multifaceted. Governments formulate and implement macroeconomic policies, establish a legal and regulatory framework, invest in infrastructure and human capital, and engage in international trade and cooperation. When effectively managed, government intervention can contribute significantly to economic growth, job creation, and improved living standards. However, it is crucial for governments to adopt sound policies, promote good governance, and ensure a favorable business climate for sustainable economic development.


  1. What is economic development?
    A. Increased productivity and technological advancements
    B. Improved living standards for the population
    C. Sustained growth and improvement of a country’s economy
    D. All of the above
  2. What is one primary role of the government in economic development?
    A. Formulating and implementing macroeconomic policies
    B. Investing in infrastructure projects
    C. Promoting international trade agreements
    D. Enhancing human capital development
  3. What tools does the government use to influence economic activity?
    A. Fiscal policy and monetary policy
    B. Legal and regulatory frameworks
    C. Infrastructure investments
    D. International trade agreements
  4. What is the role of regulations and laws in economic development?
    A. Ensuring fair competition and protecting consumers’ rights
    B. Attracting domestic and foreign investments
    C. Enhancing connectivity and facilitating trade
    D. Improving the overall health and well-being of the population
  5. How does government spending on education contribute to economic growth?
    A. By ensuring a skilled and knowledgeable workforce
    B. By attracting foreign direct investment
    C. By promoting exports to foreign markets
    D. By establishing a legal and regulatory framework
  6. What is the significance of infrastructure development in economic growth?
    A. It provides a legal and regulatory framework for businesses
    B. It enhances human capital development
    C. It establishes a transparent and predictable business environment
    D. It provides the foundation for economic activities
  7. How can governments foster economic development through international trade?
    A. By negotiating trade agreements and participating in economic blocs
    B. By managing fiscal deficits and controlling inflation
    C. By investing in education and healthcare
    D. By establishing a legal and regulatory framework
  8. What potential risks are associated with government intervention in economic development?
    A. Excessive regulations and corruption
    B. Lack of investment in infrastructure projects
    C. Inefficient governance structures
    D. Insufficient spending on education and healthcare
  9. What is the overall impact of effective government intervention on economic development?
    A. Increased productivity and improved living standards
    B. Reduced fiscal deficits and controlled inflation
    C. Enhanced connectivity and facilitation of trade
    D. Attraction of foreign direct investment and technological spillovers
  10. What factors are crucial for sustainable economic development?
    A. Sound policies, good governance, and a favorable business climate
    B. Increased government spending on education and healthcare
    C. Expansion of the export base and access to foreign markets
    D. Implementation of macroeconomic policies and infrastructure investments


  1. 経済発展とは何ですか?
    A. 生産性の向上と技術革新
    B. 人々の生活水準の改善
    C. 国の経済の持続的な成長と改善
    D. 上記のすべて

答え:D. 上記のすべて


  1. 政府の経済発展における主な役割は何ですか?
    A. マクロ経済政策の策定と実施
    B. インフラストラクチャプロジェクトへの投資
    C. 国際貿易協定の推進
    D. 人的資本開発の促進

答え:A. マクロ経済政策の策定と実施


  1. 政府は経済活動に影響を与えるためにどのようなツールを使用しますか?
    A. 財政政策と金融政策
    B. 法的および規制的な枠組み
    C. インフラストラクチャへの投資
    D. 国際貿易協定

答え:A. 財政政策と金融政策


  1. 経済発展における規制と法律の役割は何ですか?
    A. 公正な競争の確保と消費者の権利の保護
    B. 国内外の投資の誘致
    C. 接続性の向上と貿易の促進
    D. 人口全体の健康と幸福の向上

答え:A. 公正な競争の確保と消費者の権利の保護


  1. 政府の教育への支出は経済成長にどのように貢献しますか?
    A. 熟練した知識人の確保により
    B. 外国直接投資の誘致により
    C. 外国市場への輸出の促進により
    D. 法的および規制的な枠組みの確立により

答え:A. 熟練した知識人の確保により


  1. インフラストラクチャの開発が経済成長において持つ重要性は何ですか?
    A. 法的および規制的な枠組みを提供すること
    B. 人的資本開発を促進すること
    C. 透明で予測可能なビジネス環境の創造によること
    D. 経済活動の基盤を提供すること

答え:D. 経済活動の基盤を提供すること


  1. 政府は国際貿易を通じてどのように経済発展を促進できるのですか?
    A. 貿易協定の交渉と地域経済ブロックへの参加により
    B. 財政赤字の管理とインフレーションの制御により
    C. 教育と医療への支出により
    D. 法的および規制的な枠組みの確立により

答え:A. 貿易協定の交渉と地域経済ブロックへの参加により


  1. 経済発展における政府の介入に関連する潜在的なリスクは何ですか?
    A. 過剰な規制と汚職
    B. インフラストラクチャプロジェクトへの不十分な投資
    C. 効率の悪いガバナンス構造
    D. 教育と医療への十分な支出の不足

答え:A. 過剰な規制と汚職


  1. 効果的な政府の介入が経済発展に与える全体的な影響は何ですか?
    A. 生産性の向上と生活水準の改善
    B. 財政赤字の削減とインフレーションの制御
    C. 接続性の向上と貿易の促進
    D. 外国直接投資と技術の波及の促進

答え:A. 生産性の向上と生活水準の改善


  1. 持続可能な経済発展に必要な要素は何ですか?
    A. 健全な政策、良好なガバナンス、有利なビジネス環境
    B. 教育と医療への政府支出の増加
    C. 輸出基盤の拡大と外国市場へのアクセス
    D. マクロ経済政策とインフラストラクチャへの投資の実施

答え:A. 健全な政策、良好なガバナンス、有利なビジネス環境