TOEFL ibt 対策!無料のリーディング対策問題107(解説付き)

TOEFL ibt リーディング問題集

TOEFL ibt リーディングテストのスコアを改善するには…



Title: The Black Death: A Dark Chapter in Human History

The Black Death, one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, struck Europe in the 14th century, leaving a trail of devastation in its wake. This catastrophic event, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, led to the deaths of millions of people, reshaping the social, economic, and cultural landscape of the affected regions. The Black Death remains a chilling reminder of the vulnerability of human civilization in the face of contagious diseases.

Origins and Spread:

The origins of the Black Death can be traced back to the steppes of Central Asia. Historians believe that the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which causes bubonic plague, was transmitted to humans through fleas that infested black rats. These rats, commonly found on merchant ships, facilitated the rapid spread of the disease along trade routes. The first recorded outbreak occurred in the Crimea in the 1330s, spreading to the Mediterranean and Europe soon after.

Symptoms and Mortality:

The symptoms of the Black Death were horrifying and swift. Infected individuals experienced fever, chills, swollen and painful lymph nodes (buboes), and dark patches on the skin, which gave the pandemic its name. The mortality rate was staggering; it is estimated that between 25% and 60% of Europe’s population perished during the pandemic. Entire communities were wiped out, and mass graves became a common sight.

Social and Economic Impact:

The social fabric of Europe underwent profound changes due to the Black Death. The sudden loss of a significant portion of the workforce led to labor shortages, resulting in increased wages for the survivors. Serfs and peasants, who were previously bound to the land, found newfound freedom as they could demand higher pay for their work. This shift in labor dynamics contributed to the eventual decline of feudalism and the rise of a more modern economic system.

Cultural and Religious Responses:

In the face of such widespread death and suffering, various cultural and religious responses emerged. Some people turned to hedonistic lifestyles, seeking pleasure and indulgence in the face of uncertainty, while others embraced ascetic practices, believing that self-discipline and piety would protect them from the disease. The Church, which held immense power during that time, faced challenges as people questioned the effectiveness of religious rituals and prayers in the face of the pandemic.

Medical Knowledge and Responses:

During the Black Death, medical knowledge was limited, and physicians struggled to understand the causes of the disease. Various remedies, ranging from herbal concoctions to wearing masks filled with aromatic substances, were attempted to ward off the disease, but none proved effective. Quarantine measures, such as isolating infected individuals and closing off affected areas, were also implemented, although their success was limited due to the rapid spread of the disease.

Aftermath and Long-term Effects:

After the initial wave of the Black Death subsided, Europe faced the challenge of rebuilding its shattered society. The depopulation caused by the pandemic led to significant economic and social changes, ultimately contributing to the emergence of the Renaissance period. Additionally, the trauma of the Black Death left a lasting impact on art, literature, and culture, with themes of death and mortality permeating artistic expressions of the time.



1. What bacterium caused the Black Death?

A) Yersinia pestis
B) Streptococcus
C) Escherichia coli
D) Staphylococcus aureus

2. Where did the first recorded outbreak of the Black Death occur?

A) Europe
B) Central Asia
C) The Mediterranean
D) The Crimea

3. What were the symptoms of the Black Death?

A) High fever, cough, and shortness of breath
B) Swollen and painful lymph nodes, fever, and dark patches on the skin
C) Vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration
D) Joint pain, rash, and headache

4. What percentage of Europe’s population is estimated to have perished during the Black Death?

A) 10%
B) Between 25% and 60%
C) 75%
D) 90%

5. How did the Black Death impact the social structure of Europe?

A) It reinforced the feudal system
B) It led to the decline of feudalism and increased wages for laborers
C) It had no significant impact on social structures
D) It led to the rise of absolute monarchies

6. What were some cultural and religious responses to the Black Death?

A) Embracing ascetic practices and hedonistic lifestyles
B) Seeking protection through religious rituals and prayers
C) Questioning the effectiveness of religious practices
D) All of the above

7. What measures were taken to prevent the spread of the Black Death?

A) Wearing masks filled with aromatic substances
B) Quarantine measures, such as isolating infected individuals and closing affected areas
C) Drinking herbal concoctions
D) A and B

8. What period emerged in the aftermath of the Black Death, characterized by significant cultural and intellectual growth?

A) Dark Ages
B) Enlightenment
C) Renaissance
D) Industrial Revolution

9. How did the trauma of the Black Death influence art and culture?

A) Themes of death and mortality became prominent in artistic expressions
B) Art focused solely on religious themes
C) Culture became more celebratory and optimistic
D) Art became exclusively focused on nature

10. What did the Black Death ultimately contribute to the emergence of?

A) Feudalism
B) The Renaissance period
C) The Industrial Revolution
D) The Enlightenment



  1. A) Yersinia pestis
    ブラックデスの原因は、Yersinia pestis(ペスト菌)でした。この細菌が、フロー(ノミ)を介して人間に感染し、病気を広げました。
  2. D) クリミア
  3. B) 腫れたリンパ節、発熱、皮膚の黒斑
  4. B) 25%から60%
  5. B) 封建制度の衰退と労働者の賃金上昇
  6. D) すべて
  7. D) AとB
  8. C) ルネサンス
  9. A) 死と死の象徴が芸術の表現において顕著になった
  10. B) ルネサンス時代


タイトル: 黒死病: 人類史における暗黒の章

黒死病は、人類史上最も致命的なパンデミックの一つであり、14世紀にヨーロッパを襲い、その後に続く壊滅的な痕跡を残しました。この災厄的な出来事は、Yersinia pestis菌によって引き起こされ、数百万人の死者を出し、影響を受けた地域の社会、経済、文化の風景を変えました。黒死病は、伝染病に対する人間の文明の脆弱性を冷酷に示すものとして今なお私たちに警鐘を鳴らしています。


黒死病の起源は中央アジアの草原に遡ります。歴史家たちは、バブニックペストを引き起こすYersinia pestis菌が、商船に生息するネズミに寄生するノミを通じて人間に伝染したと考えています。これらのネズミは、病気の急速な拡大を促進しました。最初の記録された発生は1330年代にクリミアで起こり、すぐに地中海とヨーロッパに広がりました。