TOEIC & 共通テスト対策




**Passage: The Enduring Allure of Classics: Exploring Timeless Literary Treasures**

Classics, in the realm of literature, stand as enduring monuments that transcend time and culture. These works, often considered the pinnacle of human creativity, continue to captivate readers and offer profound insights into the complexities of the human condition. Let’s embark on a journey through the annals of classic literature, exploring timeless masterpieces that have left an indelible mark on history.

The epic of Gilgamesh, a Sumerian poem dating back to the third millennium BCE, is one of the earliest known works of literature. This narrative, etched on clay tablets, follows the adventures of King Gilgamesh as he grapples with themes of mortality, friendship, and the pursuit of wisdom. The epic serves as a window into the worldview of ancient Mesopotamia, revealing the aspirations and fears of a civilization long past.

Moving forward, we encounter the works of ancient Greece, a cradle of literary innovation. The Iliad and the Odyssey, attributed to the legendary poet Homer, emerge as foundational epics that shaped the narrative traditions of the Western world. The Iliad delves into the Trojan War, exploring themes of heroism and the capricious nature of the gods. Meanwhile, the Odyssey takes us on the odyssey of Odysseus, offering a captivating journey fraught with mythical creatures and moral dilemmas.

Fast forward to ancient Rome, and we encounter the monumental work of Virgil: the Aeneid. Commissioned by Emperor Augustus, this epic poetically narrates the foundation myth of Rome through the adventures of Aeneas. The Aeneid, while celebrating Rome’s glory, also delves into the costs of war and the complexities of destiny.

Transitioning to medieval Europe, we encounter Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy, a three-part epic that takes the reader through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. Dante’s journey, guided by the Roman poet Virgil and his idealized love, Beatrice, serves as an allegory of the soul’s quest for God. The Divine Comedy, written in the early 14th century, stands as a pinnacle of medieval literature.

Shakespeare, often regarded as the bard of Avon, graces the panorama of classics with an array of timeless plays and sonnets. His tragedies, including Hamlet, Othello, and Macbeth, explore the intricacies of human nature, ambition, and the consequences of power. Meanwhile, his comedies, like A Midsummer Night’s Dream, offer whimsical tales of love and mistaken identity.

As we traverse the timeline, we encounter the Russian literary giant Leo Tolstoy, whose War and Peace unfolds against the backdrop of the Napoleonic Wars. This magnum opus, published in serialized form from 1865 to 1869, weaves a tapestry of interconnected lives, exploring the impact of historical events on individual destinies.

The 20th century ushers in new classics, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, a poignant exploration of the American Dream and the excesses of the Jazz Age. George Orwell’s 1984, a dystopian vision of a totalitarian future, stands as a cautionary tale that reverberates through the corridors of history.

Classics, through their diverse genres and themes, invite readers to engage with the timeless questions that traverse the human experience. These literary treasures, born from the pens of poets, playwrights, and novelists across the ages, continue to resonate, offering solace, challenge, and inspiration to those who embark on the journey of exploration.


**Question 1:** What is considered one of the earliest known works of literature?

A) The Iliad  
B) The Odyssey  
C) The Aeneid  
D) The Epic of Gilgamesh  

**Question 2:** Who is the legendary poet attributed to The Iliad and The Odyssey?

A) Dante Alighieri  
B) Virgil  
C) Leo Tolstoy  
D) Homer  

**Question 3:** Which epic narrates the foundation myth of Rome?

A) The Epic of Gilgamesh  
B) The Iliad  
C) The Aeneid  
D) The Divine Comedy  

**Question 4:** In which work does Dante Alighieri explore Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise?

A) War and Peace  
B) The Great Gatsby  
C) 1984  
D) Divine Comedy  

**Question 5:** What is F. Scott Fitzgerald’s exploration in The Great Gatsby?

A) The consequences of power  
B) The excesses of the Jazz Age  
C) The Trojan War  
D) The pursuit of wisdom  

**Question 6:** Arrange the following works in chronological order:

A) War and Peace  
B) The Divine Comedy  
C) The Iliad  
D) 1984  

**Answers and Explanations (Japanese):**

1. D) The Epic of Gilgamesh  

   解説: ギルガメシュ叙事詩は文学の最も初期の作品の一つと考えられています。

2. D) Homer  

   解説: ホメロスは『イリアス』と『オデュッセイア』の伝説的な詩人とされています。

3. C) The Aeneid  

   解説: 『アエネーイス』はローマの建国神話を物語っています。

4. D) Divine Comedy  

   解説: 『神曲』は地獄、煉獄、楽園を探るダンテ・アリギエーリの作品です。

5. B) The excesses of the Jazz Age  

   解説: 『グレート・ギャツビー』はアメリカン・ドリームとジャズ時代の過剰を探求しています。

6. 正しい時系列:  

1. C) The Iliad  
2. B) The Divine Comedy
3. A) War and Peace  
4. D) 1984  


**Passage: 古典の魅力: 永遠の文学的宝物を探る**












Passage: Exploring the Tapestry of Human Societies: A Journey through Social and Cultural Anthropology

Social and cultural anthropology is a discipline that unravels the intricacies of human societies across time and space. It delves into the multifaceted dimensions of human existence, exploring how societies are organized, cultures are shaped, and individuals navigate the complex web of social relationships. Let’s embark on a journey through key concepts and historical episodes that have defined the landscape of social and cultural anthropology.

**1. Early Foundations:**

The roots of social anthropology trace back to the 19th century when scholars like Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer contemplated the study of society as a scientific endeavor. However, it was the ethnographic work of Bronisław Malinowski in the early 20th century that laid the foundation for modern social anthropology. His immersive studies in the Trobriand Islands set a precedent for participant observation, a hallmark of anthropological research.

**2. Structural Functionalism:**

In the mid-20th century, structural functionalism emerged as a dominant theoretical framework. Anthropologists like A.R. Radcliffe-Brown and Talcott Parsons focused on understanding the functions of social institutions within a society. This approach emphasized the interdependence of different elements in maintaining social order. Structural functionalism reached its zenith in the post-World War II era.

**3. Critiques and Paradigm Shifts:**

The latter half of the 20th century witnessed a paradigm shift in anthropological thought. The rise of cultural materialism, symbolic anthropology, and postmodern critiques challenged the structural functionalist paradigm. Scholars like Clifford Geertz and Marshall Sahlins emphasized the importance of interpreting symbols and meanings in understanding cultures, paving the way for interpretive anthropology.

**4. Ethnographic Turn:**

The late 20th century saw the prominence of the ethnographic turn. Anthropologists increasingly focused on detailed, on-the-ground studies of specific cultures. This shift, influenced by postmodernism, encouraged reflexivity and acknowledged the role of the observer in shaping the narrative. Ethnographies became a crucial tool for unraveling the nuances of cultural practices.

**5. Globalization and Contemporary Anthropology:**

As the world transitioned into the 21st century, anthropologists grappled with the impact of globalization. The interconnectedness of societies, facilitated by technological advancements, raised questions about cultural homogenization and hybridization. Anthropologists explored issues of identity, migration, and transnationalism in the face of these global shifts.

**6. Applied Anthropology:**

Contemporary anthropology extends beyond academic realms to applied contexts. Applied anthropology involves the practical application of anthropological methods and insights to address real-world challenges. Anthropologists engage in areas like development, healthcare, and policy-making, using their expertise to contribute to positive social change.


**Question 1: What set a precedent for participant observation in social anthropology?**

A) Auguste Comte’s theoretical framework.  
B) Herbert Spencer’s contemplation of society.  
C) Bronisław Malinowski’s ethnographic work in the Trobriand Islands.  
D) Talcott Parsons’ contributions to structural functionalism.

**Question 2: Which theoretical framework emphasized the interdependence of different elements in maintaining social order?**

A) Structural Functionalism.  
B) Cultural Materialism.  
C) Symbolic Anthropology.  
D) Postmodern Critiques.

**Question 3: Who were proponents of the structural functionalist paradigm?**

A) Clifford Geertz and Marshall Sahlins.  
B) Bronisław Malinowski and Auguste Comte.  
C) A.R. Radcliffe-Brown and Talcott Parsons.  
D) Anthropologists of the ethnographic turn.

**Question 4: What characterized the ethnographic turn in anthropology?**

A) The rise of cultural materialism.  
B) Focus on detailed, on-the-ground studies of specific cultures.  
C) The dominance of structural functionalism.  
D) Postmodern critiques challenging traditional paradigms.

**Question 5: What impact did globalization have on anthropology in the 21st century?**

A) The decline of applied anthropology.  
B) Increased focus on structural functionalism.  
C) Questions about cultural homogenization and hybridization.  
D) A return to early foundations in anthropological thought.

**Question 6: What defines applied anthropology?**

A) Detailed on-the-ground studies of specific cultures.  
B) Practical application of anthropological methods to address real-world challenges.  
C) Theoretical frameworks like structural functionalism.  
D) Emphasis on cultural homogenization in a globalized world.

**Answers and Explanations:**

1. C) Bronisław Malinowskiのトロブリアンド諸島での民族誌的な研究が参加観察の前例となりました。

2. A) Structural Functionalismは異なる要素の相互依存性を強調した理論的な枠組みでした。

3. C) A.R. Radcliffe-BrownとTalcott Parsonsは構造機能主義の範疇に属する学者でした。

4. B) Ethnographic Turnは特定の文化に焦点を当てた詳細な現地調査を特徴としました。

5. C) グローバリゼーションは文化の均質化と混合に関する問題を引き起こしました。

6. B) Applied Anthropologyは人類学の手法と洞察を実際の社会的課題に適用する実践的な側面を指します。


パッセージ: 人間社会のタペストリーを探る: 社会文化人類学の旅


1. 早期の基盤:

社会人類学のルーツは、19世紀にAuguste ComteやHerbert Spencerなどの学者が社会を科学的な探求の対象と考えた時代にさかのぼります。しかし、20世紀初頭のBronisław Malinowskiの民族誌的な研究が、現代の社会人類学の基盤を築きました。彼のトロブリアンド諸島での没入型の研究は、参加観察の前例を作り上げ、これは人類学研究の特徴となりました。

2. 構造機能主義:

20世紀中頃には、構造機能主義が主要な理論的枠組みとして登場しました。A.R. Radcliffe-BrownやTalcott Parsonsなどの人類学者は、社会内の社会機関の機能を理解することに焦点を当てました。このアプローチは社会秩序を維持するために異なる要素の相互依存性を強調しました。構造機能主義は第二次世界大戦後に最高潮に達しました。

3. 批判とパラダイムの転換:

20世紀後半には、人類学的思考のパラダイムの転換が起こりました。文化物質主義、象徴的人類学、そしてポストモダンの批判が構造機能主義のパラダイムに挑戦しました。Clifford GeertzやMarshall Sahlinsなどの学者は、文化を理解する際にシンボルと意味を解釈する重要性を強調し、解釈人類学の道を開きました。

4. 民族誌の転換:


5. グローバリゼーションと現代の人類学:


6. 応用人類学:




Passage: The European Union: A Historical Odyssey

The European Union (EU) stands as a testament to the intricate dance of history, politics, and cooperation. What began as a vision for economic unity has evolved into a complex political and social experiment, shaping the course of European history in profound ways. Let’s embark on a journey through the historical milestones that mark the evolution of the European Union.

1. **The Seeds of Cooperation (1951):**

The EU’s origin can be traced back to the aftermath of World War II. The devastation of the war prompted European leaders to seek ways to prevent future conflicts. In 1951, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established by six founding members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. This marked the first instance of economic cooperation with the goal of ensuring peace.

2. **Treaty of Rome (1957):**

Building on the success of the ECSC, the Treaty of Rome was signed in 1957, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC). The EEC aimed to create a common market among its member states, fostering economic integration. This treaty laid the groundwork for the Customs Union and the Common Agricultural Policy, further solidifying economic ties among member nations.

3. **Expansion and Enlargement:**

Throughout the latter half of the 20th century, the EU expanded both in terms of membership and its areas of influence. The accession of new member states, including the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Ireland in the 1970s, broadened the union’s reach. Expansion continued with the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, as former Eastern Bloc countries sought membership, solidifying the EU as a symbol of post-Cold War unity.

4. **Maastricht Treaty (1992):**

A pivotal moment in the EU’s evolution was the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. This treaty marked a shift from economic to political integration. The EU, as outlined in Maastricht, became a union of three pillars: the European Communities, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters. The Maastricht Treaty laid the groundwork for the creation of the Euro and envisioned a common foreign policy.

5. **The Euro and Schengen (2002):**

The introduction of the Euro in 2002 marked a significant step towards a more integrated Europe. The common currency streamlined economic transactions and symbolized a deeper level of cooperation. Concurrently, the Schengen Agreement, signed in 1985 but implemented fully in 1995, abolished border controls among participating countries, fostering the free movement of people within the Schengen Area.

6. **Challenges and Brexit (2016):**

The 21st century brought challenges to the EU’s unity. The global financial crisis of 2008 tested the economic bonds among member states. However, a more significant blow came with the Brexit referendum in 2016, where the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU. Brexit marked the first instance of a member state choosing to exit the union, raising questions about the EU’s future and spurring debates on nationalism and sovereignty.

7. **Current Dynamics and Future Prospects:**

As of today, the EU continues to grapple with both internal and external challenges. Issues such as the refugee crisis, debates over fiscal policies, and the rise of populist movements have tested the solidarity among member nations. Yet, the EU remains a symbol of cross-border cooperation and collective governance, representing a unique experiment in supranational governance.


**Question 1: What was the initial purpose of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)?**

A) To establish a common market.
B) To foster economic integration.
C) To prevent future conflicts.
D) To implement a common agricultural policy.

**Question 2: What did the Treaty of Rome (1957) establish?**

A) The European Economic Community (EEC).
B) The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
C) The Schengen Agreement.
D) The Common Agricultural Policy.

**Question 3: What marked a shift from economic to political integration in the EU?**

A) The accession of new member states.
B) The Maastricht Treaty.
C) The introduction of the Euro.
D) The fall of the Iron Curtain.

**Question 4: When was the Euro introduced as a common currency?**

A) 1951
B) 1957
C) 1992
D) 2002

**Question 5: What significant event tested the economic bonds among EU member states in the 21st century?**

A) The Maastricht Treaty.
B) The Brexit referendum.
C) The introduction of the Euro.
D) The global financial crisis of 2008.

**Question 6: What marked the first instance of a member state choosing to leave the EU?**

A) The accession of the United Kingdom.
B) The Maastricht Treaty.
C) The fall of the Iron Curtain.
D) The Brexit referendum.

**Answers and Explanations :**

  1. C – ECSCの最初の目的は将来の紛争を防ぐことでした。
  2. A – ローマ条約は欧州経済共同体(EEC)を設立しました。
  3. B – マーストリヒト条約は経済から政治への統合への転換を示しました。
  4. D – ユーロは2002年に共通の通貨として導入されました。
  5. D – 2008年の世界金融危機はEU加盟国間の経済的な結びつきを試す出来事でした。
  6. D – ブレグジットの国民投票は、加盟国がEUを離脱するという初の事例を示しました。




1. **協力の原点(1951年):**


2. **ローマ条約(1957年):**


3. **拡大と拡充:**


4. **マーストリヒト条約(1992年):**


5. **ユーロとシェンゲン(2002年):**


6. **課題とブレグジット(2016年):**


7. **現在の動向と将来の展望:**




Passage: Cryptography – Decoding the Secrets of Hidden Messages

Cryptography, the art and science of encoding information to keep it secure, has a rich and fascinating history that spans centuries. From ancient techniques of concealing messages to the sophisticated algorithms of the digital age, cryptography has played a crucial role in shaping the course of history.

1. **Ancient Cipher Mysteries:**

The roots of cryptography can be traced back to ancient civilizations. The scytale, used by the Spartans in the 5th century BCE, involved wrapping a message around a rod in a spiral manner. The receiver, with a rod of the same diameter, could then decipher the message. Julius Caesar, in the 1st century BCE, employed the Caesar Cipher, a simple substitution where each letter in the plaintext was shifted a certain number of places down the alphabet.

2. **The Renaissance and Cipher Breaking:**

During the Renaissance, with the proliferation of written communication, the need for more secure methods emerged. The polymath Leon Battista Alberti invented the first polyalphabetic cipher, significantly enhancing security. However, the 16th-century polymath Blaise de Vigenère devised a method to break such ciphers, marking the beginning of the battle between code makers and code breakers.

3. **The Enigma Machine – World War II:**

The 20th century witnessed a quantum leap in cryptographic technology with the advent of the Enigma machine. Used by the Germans during World War II, the Enigma employed a complex system of rotors and plugs to encrypt messages. Breaking the Enigma code became a critical effort for the Allied forces. The success of British codebreakers, including the famous Alan Turing, in deciphering Enigma-encrypted messages, is considered a turning point in the war.

4. **The Digital Revolution – Public Key Cryptography:**

The latter half of the 20th century brought the digital revolution and a paradigm shift in cryptography. Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, in 1976, introduced public key cryptography, a groundbreaking concept allowing secure communication over insecure channels. This laid the foundation for the development of secure online transactions, including the creation of digital signatures.

5. **RSA Algorithm and Modern Cryptography:**

Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman developed the RSA algorithm in 1977, a widely used asymmetric key algorithm for secure data transmission. This marked a significant advancement in cryptography, enabling secure communication at a scale previously unimaginable. The RSA algorithm is still a cornerstone of modern cryptographic systems.

6. **Quantum Cryptography – The Future Frontier:**

As technology advances, the field of cryptography continues to evolve. Quantum cryptography, utilizing the principles of quantum mechanics, promises unbreakable encryption through the use of quantum key distribution. While still in its infancy, the potential of quantum cryptography raises intriguing possibilities for the future of secure communication.


**Question 1: What ancient cryptographic technique involved wrapping a message around a rod?**

A) Caesar Cipher
B) RSA Algorithm
C) Scytale
D) Enigma Machine

**Question 2: Who invented the first polyalphabetic cipher during the Renaissance?**

A) Julius Caesar
B) Leon Battista Alberti
C) Blaise de Vigenère
D) Alan Turing

**Question 3: What was the significance of the Enigma machine during World War II?**

A) It introduced public key cryptography.
B) It marked the beginning of the digital revolution.
C) It was used by the Allies to encrypt messages.
D) Breaking its code was crucial for the Allied forces.

**Question 4: What concept, introduced in 1976, allowed secure communication over insecure channels?**

A) Quantum Cryptography
B) Public Key Cryptography
C) Caesar Cipher
D) Scytale

**Question 5: Who developed the RSA algorithm in 1977?**

A) Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman
B) Whitfield Diffie, Martin Hellman
C) Julius Caesar
D) Alan Turing

**Question 6: What promises unbreakable encryption through the use of quantum key distribution?**

A) RSA Algorithm
B) Public Key Cryptography
C) Quantum Cryptography
D) Enigma Machine

**Answers and Explanations :**

1. C – 古代の暗号技術であるスキュテールは、メッセージを棒に螺旋状に巻く手法でした。

2. B – ルネサンス時代に最初の多重換字式暗号を発明したのはレオン・バッティスタ・アルベルティでした。

3. D – 第二次世界大戦中に使用されたエニグママシンは、連合軍にとって暗号解読が重要でした。

4. B – 1976年にWhitfield DiffieとMartin Hellmanが導入した概念は、不安定なチャンネルを通じた安全な通信を可能にする公開鍵暗号化でした。

5. A – RSAアルゴリズムを1977年に開発したのはRon Rivest、Adi Shamir、Leonard Adlemanでした。

6. C – 量子暗号は、量子力学の原理を利用して、量子鍵配送を通じて解読不可能な暗号化を約束するものです。


パッセージ: 暗号学 – 隠されたメッセージの解読


1. 古代の暗号の謎:


2. ルネサンスと暗号の解読:


3. エニグママシン – 第二次世界大戦:


4. デジタル革命 – 公開鍵暗号学:

20世紀後半にはデジタル革命と暗号学のパラダイムシフトが訪れました。Whitfield DiffieとMartin Hellmanは1976年に公開鍵暗号学を導入し、これは不安定なチャンネルを通じての安全な通信を可能にする画期的な概念でした。これはデジタル署名を含むセキュアなオンライン取引の発展の基盤を築きました。

5. RSAアルゴリズムと現代の暗号学:

Ron Rivest、Adi Shamir、Leonard Adlemanは1977年にRSAアルゴリズムを開発し、これは安全なデータ伝送のための広く使用される非対称鍵アルゴリズムでした。これは暗号学の分野での重要な進歩であり、以前には考えられなかったスケールでの安全な通信を実現しました。RSAアルゴリズムは現代の暗号学システムの礎となっています。

6. 量子暗号学 – 未来のフロンティア:




Passage: The Evolution of Choice Theory: Understanding Decision-Making Across Time

Choice theory, a psychological perspective on decision-making, has evolved over the centuries as our understanding of human behavior deepens. Examining the historical roots of choice theory provides insights into how our perceptions of decision-making have transformed and shaped societies.

1. Ancient Philosophical Foundations:

The origins of choice theory can be traced back to ancient philosophical inquiries into free will and determinism. Philosophers like Aristotle deliberated on the nature of choice and the factors influencing decisions. These early contemplations laid the groundwork for understanding human agency and the complexities of decision-making.

2. Enlightenment Era Rationality:

The Enlightenment period in the 17th and 18th centuries witnessed a shift towards rationalism and the belief in individual autonomy. Thinkers like Immanuel Kant emphasized the importance of reason and autonomy in decision-making. This era marked a departure from strictly deterministic views, giving rise to the idea that individuals have the capacity to make rational choices.

3. Classical Economics and Utility:

The emergence of classical economics in the 18th century introduced utility theory as a framework for decision-making. Economists such as Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill proposed that individuals make choices based on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain, laying the foundation for the concept of utility. This perspective greatly influenced economic thought and decision theory.

4. Behavioral Psychology Challenges Assumptions:

In the mid-20th century, behavioral psychology emerged as a significant challenger to traditional economic assumptions about decision-making. Psychologists like Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky demonstrated that human choices are often irrational and influenced by cognitive biases. This paradigm shift highlighted the role of emotions, heuristics, and social factors in decision processes.

5. Rational Choice Theory in Sociology:

In sociology, rational choice theory gained prominence in the latter half of the 20th century. Scholars like James S. Coleman and Gary Becker applied rational choice principles to understand social phenomena. This approach posits that individuals make decisions based on a rational assessment of costs and benefits, extending economic concepts to social realms.

6. Neuroscientific Insights and Modern Choice Theory:

Advancements in neuroscience in the 21st century have provided new perspectives on choice theory. Research using neuroimaging techniques has offered insights into the neural processes underlying decision-making. The interplay between emotions, cognitive functions, and neural pathways is now a central focus, contributing to a more nuanced understanding of how choices are made.


**Question 1: Arrange the following developments in the history of choice theory in chronological order:**

A. Behavioral psychology challenges assumptions about rational decision-making.
B. Ancient philosophical inquiries into free will and determinism.
C. Enlightenment era emphasizes individual autonomy and rationality.
D. Classical economics introduces utility theory.

**Question 2: Which era marked a departure from deterministic views and emphasized the capacity of individuals to make rational choices?**

A. Ancient Philosophical Foundations
B. Enlightenment Era Rationality
C. Classical Economics and Utility
D. Behavioral Psychology Challenges Assumptions

**Question 3: What was a significant contribution of classical economics to choice theory?**

A. Introduction of neuroscientific insights
B. Emphasis on individual autonomy
C. Proposal of utility theory
D. Application of rational choice theory in sociology

**Question 4: What challenge to traditional economic assumptions about decision-making emerged in the mid-20th century?**

A. Behavioral psychology
B. Classical economics
C. Enlightenment era rationality
D. Ancient philosophical inquiries

**Question 5: In which field did rational choice theory gain prominence in the latter half of the 20th century?**

A. Neuroscience
B. Behavioral psychology
C. Sociology
D. Classical economics

**Question 6: What characterizes modern choice theory in the 21st century?**

A. Emphasis on individual autonomy
B. Introduction of utility theory
C. Application of rational choice theory in sociology
D. Integration of neuroscientific insights

**Answers and Explanations:**

  1. B、C、D、A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
  5. C
  6. D


**パッセージ: 選択理論の進化: 時を超えた意思決定の理解**


1. 古代の哲学的基盤:


2. 啓蒙時代の合理性:


3. 古典派経済学と効用:


4. 行動心理学との対立:


5. 社会学における合理的選択理論:


6. 現代の選択理論と神経科学的洞察: